Mohenjo-daro ( Urdu: موئن جو دڑو, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو) was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization, 20 km from Larkana and some 80 km southwest of Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is better preserved than Harappa. However, due to rain the upper part of the tomb is now destroyed despite steps to further save this landmark.
Mohenjo-daro is about 400 miles away from Harappa. It was built around 2600 BC, and was abandoned around 1700 BC, probably due to a change of course of the river which supported the civilization. It was rediscovered in the 1920s by Sir John Marshall’s archaeologists. His car is still in Mohenjo-daro museum, showing his presence, struggle, and dedication for Mohenjo-daro.
The language of the Indus Civilization has yet to be deciphered, and the real name of the city as of other excavated cities in Sindh and Punjab, is unknown. “Mohenjo-daro” is Sindhi for “Mound of the Dead.” (The name is also seen with slight variants such as Moenjodaro.)
Mohenjo-daro is a remarkable construction, considering its antiquity. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, with structures constructed of bricks of baked mud, sun dried bricks and burned wood. At its height the city probably had around 35,000 residents. It had an advanced drainage system, a variety of buildings up to two stories high and an elaborate bath area. The bath area was very well built, with a layer of natural tar to keep it from leaking, and in the center was a swimming pool. Being an agricultural city, it also featured a large well, granary, and central marketplace.
It also had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city was divided into two parts, the Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
UNESCO’s efforts to save Mohenjo-daro was one of the key events that led the organization to establish World Heritage Sites.